Mike is a retired meteorologist, a former NOAA-National Weather Service employee, and a former employee of the DOD’s U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory where he was an associate RDT&E meteorologist at White Sands Missile Range, NM, Poker Flat Research Range, AK, and eventually the Chief Operational and Research Meteorologist at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ. As a NOAA employee, Mike was a certified NOAA-NWS Weather Radar Operator, Weather Observer, Weather Forecaster, and Climate Data Analyst. Mike was also a certified DOD weather forecaster specializing in operational, environmental, and ballistic weather forecasting, military meteorology, planetary boundary layer, aeronomy (middle and upper atmospheric research), and meteorological research and project support (RDT&E).

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Summary of Meteorological and Atmospheric Sciences Work Experience

Summary of Meteorological and Atmospheric Sciences Work Experience

Note: I have added numerous links to help understand the meteorological jargon and to better understand the projects I was involved with and the RDT&E sites where I worked. Some links may have expired but I try to keep them as up to date as possible. While compiling this page, I extracted a lot of information from old job descriptions (PD’s), resumes, and project notes I could find that I had written in the 1970’s and early 1980’s so at times it may be a bit repetitious and technical.

I have operational, classroom, and analytical experience in wide array or meteorological functions from taking a simple surface observation to collaborating with peers and evaluating and assimilating atmospheric data for use in technical research papers (gray literature). Much of the government research concerning meteorology and climate, including NOAA, NASA, and DOD, is documented with gray literature. The Defense Technical Information Center is one place to find some of DOD’s gray literature although most is from the mid 1970’s forward. Some gray literature and collaborated gray literature is later published in journals and books but most remains uniquely governmental. For nearly a decade I worked for the DOD’s U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL), now part of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), which was established in 1992, providing an array of meteorological services including meteorological support for DOD RDT&E (Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation) projects. I guess I followed in my father’s footsteps as he worked for DOD’s MIT Lincoln Laboratory research facility from the mid 1960’s to the early 1980’s. In 1956-57 my father participated in Operation Deep Freeze I, initially under Admiral Byrd (who died in early 1957,) and was stationed at Little America Ice Station V, Antarctica as part of an international collaboration for scientific studies during the International Geophysical Year 1957-58 (solar cycle 19 maximum). Today, meteorological research for DOD is being done for the U.S. Army by the ARL, for the U.S. Navy by the U.S. Navy Research Laboratory and for the U.S. Air Force by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. In the 1970’s and 80’s ASL was the leading Army laboratory for artillery meteorology, electro-optical climatology, atmospheric optics data, and atmospheric characterization.

Excerpt about the Atmospheric Sciences laboratory (ASL) from the White Sands “Missile Ranger’, May 24, 1974… http://www.wsmrhistoric.com/files/1974%20Missile%20Ranger%20V25%20Issue%2011.pdf Page 3

“The staff of ASL at White Sands is among the most highly qualified anywhere. Colonel William C. Petty is the commanding officer and director, and Marvin Diamond is deputy director. There are 10 ASL scientists who have earned Ph.D.’s, 43 with master’s degrees, and nearly 60 with undergraduate degrees. Their awards and honors are far too numerous to list, but they include the Department of Army Certificate of Achievement, Army Meritorious Service, and the Army Research and Development award for technical achievement. ASL scientists publish an average of 20 open literature articles every year in various prestigious scientific journals such as the Journal of Geophysical Research and the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Some of these publications are in foreign language journals.”

Various DOD meteorological work assignments allowed me to gain a great amount of experience and knowledge as they were often associated with many colleges and universities not only in the local area but many were also contracted by DOD for further education, assistance in DOD research, and some were even doing their own research sponsored by government grants. Currently DOD/U.S. Army offers exciting STEM intern, educational co-op type opportunities through the Army Educational Outreach Program (AEOP) such as the College Quality Leaders program (CQL), the Pathways Program, the Undergraduate Research Apprenticeship Program (URAP), the Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation Program (SMART) and many others. NOAA/UCAR also offers COMET for continuing meteorological education.

I have nearly a decade of work experience in meteorology and atmospheric sciences and nearly 3000 hours of formal classroom instruction with initial educational emphasis on “Applied Meteorology” and subsequently advanced integrated research related “Atmospheric Sciences”. “Applied Meteorology” involves extensive coursework in meteorology, physics, and mathematics, as well as direct experience in applying basic and theoretical concepts to real world situations. DOD Applied Meteorologists apply weather and climate information to the unique problems facing our military forces. Courses taken include advanced mathematics (including calculus, applied mathematics and differential equations, analytical geometry, trigonometry, and applied statistics), chemistry/atmospheric chemistry, physics/atmospheric physics, cloud physics, atmospheric optics, atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric radiation, atmospheric electricity, thermodynamics, physical meteorology, fluid mechanics, geophysics, applied synoptic labs, advanced synoptic analysis and forecasting labs, advanced dynamic meteorology, applied meteorology and climatology, paleoclimatology, glacial/ice dynamics, micrometeorology/atmospheric boundary layer, meteorological instrumentation and observation, weather radars, aviation weather including pilot and command weather briefings and more. I have accrued these credits through a myriad of ways including college credits through examination with DOD DANTES (now DSST), CLEP and other American Council of Education (ACE) approved testing programs for other education (those advanced high school classes in physics, chemistry, and mathematics paid off), ACE approved credits for work experience outside of formal college or technical school training, NOAA/NWS technical training (credit unknown), approved ACE or other accrediting associations for any DOD technical training schools, college correspondence/independent study courses (the previous way for distance learning before the internet) and formal classroom training at several colleges and universities. Additionally, I was one of the non-USAF DOD employees to qualify and be selected to attend an intensive, condensed seven month U.S. Air Force (USAF) Weather Forecaster School at Chanute AFB, IL required for U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) members who want to work as weather forecasters. The weather forecaster course and other weather training courses were transferred from Chanute AFB to Keesler AFB, MS in August 1992 as a result of closing Chanute AFB due to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC). Keesler now hosts all DOD weather students for training. I have 100+ additional DOD credits taken through DOD correspondence/extension courses and supplementary paleoclimatology and weather radar training through NOAA. I have been certified through testing and/or performance on surface observations by DOD and NOAA/NWS, meteorological instrumentation by DOD and NOAA/NWS, meteorological rockets by DOD, upper air observations by DOD, weather radar by NOAA/NWS, micrometeorology/boundary layer by DOD, environmental and operational weather forecasting by DOD, operational weather forecasting by NOAA/NWS, and military meteorology (including artillery ballistics) by DOD.

At weather facilities all over the United States and Alaska I have taken officially recorded weather observations, used sling psychrometers, calculated convection levels, read and recorded automated weather instruments, and observed and recorded numerous weather phenomena. To determine the importance of the sun’s radiation, I have installed, operated, calibrated, maintained, provided data analysis, and contributed to the preparation and compilation of official DOD research and project support on the following equipment: Eppley Pyranometers (short waves), Net Exchange radiometers (all wavelengths), Normal Incidence Pyreheliometers (short waves) and Eppley Selective Band Pyranometers (short wave) , Eppley Pyreheliometer (short waves) now obsolete, Pyrgeometers (atmospheric long-wave downward radiation), Total Hemispheric Radiometers (all wavelengths), and Solar Radiation Measuring Sets with most using Honeywell potentiometer recorders.

I have installed, operated, calibrated, maintained, and analyzed data for official DOD reports and project support on the following instrumentation:

Ozone meters, WS101 Wind Set , UVW Wind Systems , RO2 Wind Recorder , laser anemometers ,   thermographs ,   hygrothermographs,   barographs ,   Belfort microbarographs , anemographs (an anemometer that records on paper the speed, duration, and sometimes also the direction of the wind), thermistor soil temperature instruments, WBGT Systems.

I have launched weather balloons (radiosonde/rawinsondewiresondePIBAL) and analyzed and encoded the data, tracked PIBAL balloons with theodolites, operated T9 radar and provided analysis of T9 radar wind data, operated NWS weather radars and issued severe storm warnings and flash flood warnings, forecasted surface and upper air weather, provided air blast forecasts, provided DOD command weather briefings, provided operational and environmental forecasts, issued heat warnings, provided artillery meteorological forecasts, provided micrometeorological (boundary layer) support for research and development of the High Energy Laser (HEL), provided pilot and command weather briefings, provided meteorological support for the NASA VIKING Mars Lander Project, and Athena and Pershing Missile test launches from Green River, Utah to White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM.

Note: Green River is now abandoned. Here is a 2002 picture of the meteorology support building there and a look at the inside of the meteorology building.

In 1972 I provided meteorological support for the NAVSTAR GPS Project (Yes! That GPS like in your car and that controls missiles! Just a note: GPS was developed by DOD research).

I’ve assembled, calibrated and launched Loki , Super Loki , and Super ARCAS meteorological rockets (rocketsondes) and analyzed and encoded the data, provided meteorological support for NASA Aurora Borealis, noctilucent cloud, and other aeronomic studies, provided meteorological support and contributed to official technical report preparation for the DNA ICECAP Project (Infrared Chemistry Experiments – Coordinated Auroral Program), launched rockets and provided rocket data (~184 soundings from Oct 72-Oct 74) for the DOD Meteorological Rocket Network (MRN) at Poker Flat Research Range, AK (moved from Ft. Greely, AK), and participated in the construction of a weather facility for the Poker Flat Research Range, Fairbanks, AK. I have collaborated with other non-DOD scientists on DOD supported research projects and have contributed to the preparation and compilation of official meteorological government technical reports and documentation of official DOD meteorological and atmospheric science projects and missions. I have comprehensive analytical, functional, and operational meteorological skills. I have done meteorological research, operational meteorological project support, various types of weather forecasting, and extensive meteorological data analysis. What really make my experience unique is the actual involvement in all phases of meteorological functions from the setup, calibration, operation, and maintenance of meteorological instruments, applied field experience in surface and upper air observations, and diverse data collection to multiple types of weather forecasting enabling involvement in almost all spatial scales of meteorology; synoptic, mesoscale, and microscale (including boundary layer).

“Learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.” — Albert Einstein

Poker Flat Research Range Assignment:

I especially enjoyed my two years at Poker Flat Rocket Facility in Fairbanks, Alaska. The book “Rockets Over Alaska” documents the research events leading up to the development of the site and the research activities after the facility was established. I arrived shortly after the establishment of the DOD Meteorological Rocket Network (MRN) at Poker Flat in 1972. My time there was one of the peak research times (by number of launches) at the facility for Aurora Borealis studies and the DNA 1973/1974 ICECAP Project (Infrared Chemistry Experiments – Coordinated Auroral Program) mentioned previously was also ongoing at the time. Yes! It is rocket science! What a great and exciting time that was! Driving out to a remote site every day for about 25-30 miles sometimes as cold as 50 below zero and over glaciers on the road too! Of all my DOD assignments that one was the most fun, fulfilling, and exciting. Seeing the Aurora Borealis, and providing support for unique atmospheric studies as it relates to the Aurora and the research teams from various universities and government agencies was a blast not to mention working with Dr. Neil Davis (founder of Poker Flat), Neal Brown (Range Supervisor), Ralph New (responsible for DOD’s meteorological support at Poker Flat), and all the other great people at the Geophysical Institute (University of Alaska, Fairbanks) and employees of the Poker Flat Research Range. What a great place to work and learn at the Geophysical Institute as well. In 1993 the HAARP Project began and the research at Poker Flat was a forerunner for that project. There are even conspiracy theories that the government has a secret plan to modify the weather and disrupt communications by changing the ionosphere. The former HIPAS (High Power Auroral Stimulation) Observatory operated by the UCLA physics lab adjacent to Poker Flat Range was similar in scope to HAARP. Also, a FIPA array is rumored to be in the Poker Flat area.

Below is a brief summary of my meteorological research assignments and projects for DOD and NOAA:

The following paragraph gives a good description of activities I worked for, the scope of research projects, and puts my research assignments in perspective. Some of the command names running the show have changed since the 1970’s but the description of meteorological activities is essentially the same except the projects are current.

MISSION DESCRIPTION (edited) https://apps.dtic.mil/descriptivesum/Y2013/Army/stamped/0605702A_6_PB_2013.pdf

All functions and resources in this Program Element (PE) are managed by the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) and the subordinate Development Test Command (DTC). Note: The U. S. Army Electronics Command merged and became the Army Communication and Electronics Command (CECOM) in 1981. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has a presence at ATEC Test Sites. Meteorological support to research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities provides standard and specialized weather forecasts and data for test reports to satisfy Army/Department of Defense RDT&E test requirements for modern weaponry, e.g., (1) unique atmospheric analysis and sampling to include atmospheric transmittance, extinction, optical scintillation, infrared temperature, aerosol/smoke cloud dispersion characteristics, ballistic meteorological measurements, snow characterization and crystal structure; (2) test event forecasting to include prediction of sound propagation for ballistic firing tests, specialized prediction of light levels and target to background measurements, and predictions for electro-optical testing and ballistic artillery/mortar firing; and (3) advisory and warning products such as go/no-go test recommendations for ballistic and atmospheric probe missiles, smoke/obscurant tests, hazard predictions for chemical agent munitions disposal, monitoring dispersion of simulant clouds for chemical/biological detector tests, simulated nuclear blasts, and weather warnings for test range safety. Provides technical support to Army Program Executive Officers (PEOs), Project Managers (PMs), and the Army test ranges and sites at: White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico; Electronic Proving Ground (EPG), Fort Huachuca, Arizona; Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah; Aberdeen Test Center (ATC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland; Redstone Test Center (RTC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama; Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona (including the Cold Regions Test Center (CRTC), Fort Greely, AK); Fort Belvoir, Virginia; and Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia. This program develops methodologies and acquires instrumentation and systems that allow meteorological teams to support current and future Army/DOD RDT&E requirements. It finances indirect meteorological support operating costs not billable to customers and replacement/upgrade of meteorological instrumentation and support systems. Direct costs for meteorological support services are not funded by this PE, but are borne by the customer (i.e., materiel/weapons developers and project/product managers) in accordance with DOD Directive 7000.14R, October 1999. This program is essential to the accomplishment of the Army’s developmental test mission in that precise weather modeling and measurements directly influence test item performance and quantify test item weather dependencies and vulnerabilities.

DOD Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) integrates both basic and applied scientific research as described below.

To focus specifically on the DOD definitions for DOD Acquisition the definitions are:

Basic Research (6.1) – Systematic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and/or observable facts without specific applications toward processes or products in mind.

Applied Research (6.2) – Systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the means by which a recognized and specific need may be met.

Current duties for an entry level intern position as a DOD RDT&E U.S. Army Meteorologist:

DESCRIPTION OF DUTIES: Performs a variety of meteorological studies and analyses of limited scope and complexity which are assigned, generally in a planned sequence, to develop potential for higher level work in the field of Meteorology. Assignments usually involve work which is subordinate to and supportive of much broader assignments for which meteorologists of higher grade have overall responsibility and require familiarity with and ability to use a number of standard principles and proper techniques in specific situations; to adjust and correlate data; to quality control data and recognize discrepancies and deviations in results; to schedule work sequences; and to prepare user specialized technical summaries and descriptive reports. Typical assignments include assisting senior meteorologists in routine and specialized weather forecasts; taking, recording, and archiving surface weather observations when needed; disseminating various meteorological information (forecasts, observations, warnings, climatology, mission weather data, etc.) to both the general public and to specialized missile range projects and user groups via various media and in a timely manner; directly assisting in the impact prediction of less complex rocket systems such as the LOKI met rockets while assisting only in the minor functions of the impact prediction for the more complex rocket sounding systems. Issues simple adaptive or amended forecasts and weather warnings under specific established guidelines when criteria are met and direct supervision is not available.

Read more about ARL research…


Other gray literature documented research of ASL and ARL can be found at


“Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” – Carl Sagan

Go back to the top of this section

Meteorological Research Assignments and Projects

White Sands Missile Range, Las Cruces, New Mexico • Sep 1971 to Oct 1972
https://www.wsmr.army.mil/pdf/CompositeRCH2011.pdf (Page 39-40)
DOD Meteorologist (Basic and Applied Research Operational/Project Support)
As a member of the DOD U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Meteorology Team, White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM, I provided meteorological support and documentation for many basic and applied research activities including work on the 1976 VIKING MARS LANDER PROJECT (RIP Dr. Conway Leovy), NAVSTAR GPS Project , and Athena and Pershing Missile test launches from Green River, Utah (now abandoned) to White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM.

Note: In 1972 the USAF Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (Holloman AFB), conducted developmental flight tests of two prototype GPS receivers over White Sands Missile Range, using ground-based pseudo-satellites.


https://asc.army.mil/docs/pubs/alt/archives/1977/Jan-Feb_1977.PDF (Page 18)

White Sands Missile Range, NM

Meteorological and physical sciences atmospheric and stratospheric probes, as cited earlier, are an important part of WSMR operations, as conducted by the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory. The ASL is under control of, and part of, the U.S. Army Electronics Command, headquartered at Fort Monmouth, NJ. Scientists from many U.S. agencies and foreign nations take part in these probes.

WSMR has numerous tenant organizations, the largest being the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory. It dates in range history to World War II when it was under the U.S. Army Signal Corps, and was concerned with radar and communications support for the V-2 rocket program. ASL’s current mission is 3-fold. Thirteen ASL meteorological support teams provide highly specialized support to Army R&D, including evaluation activities throughout the Continental United States, Alaska, and the Panama Canal Zone. In addition to research, development and engineering activities linked to weapons systems and other military equipment, ASL personnel conduct extensive atmospheric and stratospheric phenomena investigations. They also are involved in development of meteorological equipment and techniques.

NASA is now a large-scale user of WSMR facilities for an expanding area of investigations, including the Space Shuttle Orbiter maneuvering system, reaction control system and the auxiliary power system. Considerable R&D effort on the Viking spacecraft, which in 1976 landed on Mars, was performed at WSMR.

Excerpt from the White Sands “Missile Ranger’, May 24, 1974… For ASL, the sky is not the limit

http://www.wsmrhistoric.com/files/1974%20Missile%20Ranger%20V25%20Issue%2011.pdf Page 3

“In 1969, ASL’s headquarters was moved to WSMR. “A western effort to take eastern jobs,” huffed one New Jersey newspaper, but without effect. ASL has been WSMR’s largest tenant organization ever since. The mission of ASL is threefold. It conducts meteorological research, develops meteorological equipment for the field Army, and provides specialized meteorological support to the Army’s research, development, test and evaluation activities. Every record that existed in the annals of weather research has been broken by ASL. And they continue to set new records, breaking their old ones in the process. Concurrent research expands the limits of meteorological knowledge. Each breakthrough has been the result of problems encountered and overcome, a modern-day learn as-you-go approach to science, inventive and imaginative. In July 1957, meteorologists using small Loki II rockets released packets of metallic chaff at designated altitudes and then tracked the drift by radar. This resulted in new knowledge of high altitude winds. Later in 1957, White Sands saw the first successful firing of a rocket capable of being launched by a two-man team. In 1964, upper atmosphere tidal waves were first observed by ASL scientists at White Sands. Four years later, the world’s largest balloon was launched bearing atmospheric sensing equipment. The next year, an even larger balloon reached a new record height of 164,000 feet. Since its beginning, ASL has led in pioneering research into impact prediction for unguided rockets such as the Aerobee, Nike Cajun, and Areas, as they have assumed leadership in the development and application of meteorological rocketry. ASL has played the major role in establishing a national network of meteorological rocket stations. The network has grown into an international chain with other nations including Canada, Great Britain, Japan, the USSR, India, Japan, Argentina, Brazil and France. With an extensive system of ground and tower sensors, ASL has developed the Sonic Observation of Trajectory and Impact of Missile (AOTIM) used widely at WSMR to locate missile impact points.

The staff of ASL at White Sands is among the most highly qualified anywhere. Colonel William C. Petty is the commanding officer and director, and Marvin Diamond is deputy director. There are 10 ASL scientists who have earned Ph.D.’s, 43 with master’s degrees, and nearly 60 with undergraduate degrees. Their awards and honors are far too numerous to list, but they include the Department of Army Certificate of Achievement, Army Meritorious Service, and the Army Research and Development award for technical achievement. ASL scientists publish an average of 20 open literature articles every year in various prestigious scientific journals such as the Journal of Geophysical Research and the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Some of these publications are in foreign language journals. With this rich history, the ASL celebrates its ninth anniversary today. Records stand now that will be broken again. For ASL, the sky is not the limit.”

End Excerpt

Some of the research and RDT&E Support Projects (9/71 – 10/72) of U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Meteorology Team during my tenure at White Sands Missile Range, NM:

U. S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Headquarters at White Sands Missile Range

Viking Mars Lander 
UVW Anemometer
Rawinsonde Errors
Ballistics Wind Study
Ballistics Density Study
Meteorology Parameter Accuracy Study
Climate Calendar
Fog Study
Cloud Condensation Nuclei 
Boundary Layer Wind Study

Current White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) Meteorological Support:

From the Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group

White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is located in south-central New Mexico. The WSMR Post Headquarters is about 50 miles north of El Paso, TX and 25 miles east of Las Cruces, NM. The main range occupies a land area approximately 40 miles (east-west) by 100 miles (north-south). In addition, a leased range extension, 40 square miles, lies adjacent to the northern boundary. The Range can be extended westward by activating several other smaller extensions on the western boundary of the Range.

The climatic and geographical environments of WSMR are particularly suitable for missile and rocket testing operations. Meteorological conditions typical of the desert provide excellent year-round visibility with good coverage by optical instrumentation obtainable about 95 percent of the time, both day and night. Almost all activities on WSMR require some meteorological support.

WSMR is a highly instrumented missile range. Over the vast expanse of land, the meteorological team collects weather data at both permanent and mobile sites. The following meteorological activities are available at WSMR:

a. Meteorological planning services, matching customer requirements and requests with capabilities. Quality-control of post-mission data reports. (Normal)

b. Climatological studies: custom test-planning information derived from a 20+ year Surface Automated Measurement System (SAMS) and 15+ year radiosonde observation (ROAB) database archive. (Normal)

c. Sounding rocket impact prediction: Fully mobile system to integrate surface, boundary-layer, and upper-air wind data. Data is ingested by software developed in-house to provide wind-weighted solutions for impact points and/or launcher settings (azimuth/quadrant elevation). Tower display features an automatic red/green GO/NO-GO decision support tool. System has been successfully used for dozens of launches at WSMR, as well as off-Range locations such as San Nicolas Island, CA, Woomera Rocket Range, Australia, and Pacific Missile Range, HI. (Normal)

d. Mission-specific weather forecasting and advising, on various timescales from T-minus 7-10 days down to realtime. (Normal)

e. Lightning/Weather Watches: Real-time monitoring of mission-critical weather criteria and lightning strike information available via telephone or in-person at Range Control Center ensure safety of personnel in the field. (Normal)

f. Base warning services during Army RDT&E activities and normal Garrison working hours: Warnings for high winds, thunderstorms, snow/ice, visibility, etc. (Normal)

g. Balloon- and chaff-drift predictions. (Occasional)

Weather Instrumentation:

a. Weather Radar Type: Doppler, Multi-Doppler.

(1) Specifics: Direct feed of Level II NEXRAD data (via NCAR) from HDX, EPZ, and ABX. These data are displayed and analyzed by the 4DWx Thunderstorm Autonowcaster (ANC). Also, Level III products from approximately 25 other sites of interest are ingested via NOAAPort and displayed with N-AWIPS software.
(2) Purpose: daily range operations, missions and the 4DWx ANC facilitates lightning meteorological watches by ingesting 3-D lightning data (described below) into a fuzzy-logic algorithm which forecasts thunderstorm initiation and development in the 0-60 minute timeframe. Data can be archived for “hind cast” studies.
(3) Uses: precipitation location and intensity, thunderstorm location and intensity, and rainfall or flash flood warnings.

(4) Additional Specifics: level II radial velocity data aid in identification of the relatively rare but still high-impact occurrences of severe thunderstorms.

b. Satellite: GOES-11 and GOES-12. Direct Feed List: Visible (1-km resolution), IR (4-km) and water vapor channels via NOAAPort; displayed with N-AWIPS.

c. Upper Air: radiosondes, sonic profiler and radar profiler. Specifics: Hundreds of radiosondes launched yearly from sites throughout WSMR; data delivered in standard NASA formats and NATO ballistic met message. One sodar is available. NWS 404-MHz wind profiler located on southern WSMR. Four mobile 915-MHz profilers. Two wind-finding tracking radars (WF-100).

d. Surface:

(1) Ceilometer: 2 Vaisala CL-31.
(2) Rain Gauge: tipping-bucket; co-located with SAMS sites.
(3) Anemometer: R. M. Young Models 5103 and/or 5305, depending on location.
(4) AWOS/ASOS List Equipment: Ceilometer, winds, temp, relative humidity, pressure, visibility, prevailing weather, and rain gauge.
(5) Other: eight 20-m mobile wind towers. Three 34-m mobile wind towers. SAMS mesonet of approximately 20 stations, spread across WSMR. Each measures 10-m wind speed/direction, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, solar radiation, and precipitation at 1-15 minute intervals; also can be equipped with carbon dioxide sensor.
e. Lightning Detection:
(1) NLDN Data: direct satellite feed from Vaisala.
(2) Stand-alone Sensor: Mobile StrikeGuard flash-detection systems.
(3) Sensor Network: research-grade 3-D Lightning Mapping Array (3D-LMA) covers entire Range.
(4) Other: WeatherBug lightning network data ingested into 4DWx database; can also be displayed real-time with IDV software.

(5) Specifics: 3D-LMA designed, built, and maintained with assistance from experts at New Mexico Tech. Range Atmospheric and Oceanic Environmental Support Capabilities, RCC Document 354-11, December 2011 16-3

f. Any other instruments used in support of weather related efforts:

(1) Tethered-balloon system measures wind speed/direction, temperature, relative humidity, and pressure at up to six user-selectable altitudes in the boundary layer (up to 1200 m AGL).
(2) Wet bulb globe temperature apparatus measures heat stress index in accordance with Army safety regulations.
g. Specialized NWP models: WRF ver. 3.1, locally run by NCAR through the 4DWx system. WRF utilizes Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (RT-FDDA) strategies by ingesting all manner of Range data (e.g., surface, upper-air) to nudge model output toward observations. The WRF/RT-FDDA is run on 3 nested grids, with grid-point spacing progressively decreasing from 30 km down to 1.1 km on the innermost grid. Customized WRF configurations are also run periodically in support of off-range testing with the 4DWx Global Meteorology On-Demand tool. 


Poker Flat Research Range, Fairbanks, Alaska • Oct 1972 to Oct 1974

DOD Meteorologist (Basic and Applied Research, Operational/Project Support)
As a member of the DOD U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Meteorology Team, Alaska, I arrived shortly after the establishment of the DOD Meteorological Rocket Network (MRN) from Fort Greely, AK about 100 miles SE of Fairbanks, to Poker Flat Research Range, AK, a satellite site of the Ft. Greely ASL Meteorology Team. After attending the DOD Meteorological Rocket School at Vandenberg AFB, CA, I provided an array of meteorological support, including meteorological balloons (rawinsondes) and rockets (rocketsondes), to support the Geophysical Institute (University of Alaska, Fairbanks). In addition to meteorological rockets, I also helped to ready payloads, assemble, and launch numerous auroral research rockets. Meteorological Rockets were fired several times per week in support of the range and the DOD Meteorological Rocket Network. Research and aeronomic projects, which included support for NASA Aurora Borealis studiesDNA ICE CAP Project (Infrared Chemistry Experiments – Coordinated Auroral Program), and other basic and applied research activities for study of the middle and upper atmosphere including the stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere (including the ionosphere) at the Poker Flat Rocket Research Range, Fairbanks, AK. The facility is owned by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute and is now under contract with NASA, Wallops Island, VA (Goddard Space Flight Center). For a history of the site read “Rockets Over Alaska”.

Note: At the request of the U.S. Army, the the Meteorological Rocket Network (MRN) was established in October 1959.

Some of the research and RDT&E Support Projects (10/72 – 10/74) of the U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Poker Flat Meteorology Team during my tenure, other than the scheduled MRN launchings:

ICECAP: Infrared Chemistry Experiments – Coordinated Auroral Program

ICECAP 73 (High Altitude Effects Simulation-HAES) (Feb-Mar 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/AD0762013
Thermosphere Wind Measurement (Mar 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/AD0770093 
ICECAP 73 (Mar 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/AD0781184
ICECAP 73 (1972-1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA014847
Aurora Study (APR 1974) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA008496
Aurora Study (APR 1974) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA016755
Aurora Study (Mar 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA008500
Wind Study (Feb 1974) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA019752
Auroral High Altitude Effects Stimulation (HAES) Study (Mar 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA012476
ICECAP 74(Feb 1974) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA051169
High Altitude Effects Simulation-HAES (Mar 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA020810
Environmental Research (Mar-Apr 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA022955
Rocket-Borne Spectral Measurement of Atmospheric Infrared Emission during a Quiet Condition in the Auroral Zone  https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA038250
ICECAP 73 (Mar 1973) https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA038239
LWIR (7-24-Micrometer) Measurements from the Launch of a Rocketborne Spectrometer into a Quiet Atmosphere (1974)  https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA045466
Noctilucent Clouds https://www.newspapers.com/clip/46652744/fairbanks-daily-news-miner/
Nacreous Clouds http://www.atoptics.co.uk/highsky/nacr1.htm


Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama • Nov 1974 to Apr 1976


DOD Meteorologist (Basic and Applied Research, Operational/Project Support)

As a member of the DOD U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Meteorology Team, Redstone Arsenal, AL I provided surface and micrometeorological, sometimes referred to as Boundary Layer, support for the High Energy Laser (HEL) project testing facility and other basic and applied research activities at Redstone Arsenal, AL. Support included installing, calibrating, monitoring, maintaining, and analyzing data from instrumentation at many points down the length of the range and corroborating on research regarding the effects of the micro environment on the testing of the Laser. I also assisted with climate and atmospheric research for the U.S. Army Missile Research Development and Engineering Lab. The majority of my time at this assignment was spent on the laser range with project support for the HEL.

Here is some current info on the HEL…


Some of the research and RDT&E Support Projects (10/72 – 10/74) of the U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Redstone Arsenal Meteorology Team:


Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, AZ • Apr 1976 to Oct 1978


DOD Meteorologist (Basic and Applied Research, Operational/Project Support)

As a member of the DOD U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) Meteorology Team, Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), AZ I provided a wide array of meteorological services in support of research and military exercises at the Yuma Proving Ground. During this time I was designated as the YPG Chief Operational and Research Meteorologist and Range Weather Forecaster. As an upper air specialist and then the YPG Meteorologist I was focused on meteorological support for the YPG military mission providing operational, environmental, and tactical weather forecasting services including air blast, upper winds, air density, and other artillery ballistic forecasts while also providing weather forecasting and various meteorological data for other ongoing YPG projects. Other meteorological projects included research on the effects of positive vorticity advection (PVA) on desert convective activity; other desert micro and mesoscale meteorological phenomena; macroscale meteorology involving influences of the North American Monsoon on the Arizona desert environment; solar radiation measurement, review, and analysis; providing data for environmental impact studies; and analyzing, compiling and supplying ASL Yuma Proving Ground meteorological information on climate data for inclusion in the Desert Environmental Handbook. Additional testing of the DOD GPS program also occurred during this time.

Information about Meteorology at YPG:

Yuma Met Team articles:





Yuma Meteorology Sites: https://wrcc.dri.edu/ypg/

History of YPG:



Some research projects other than ballistics and weather forecasting support of the ASL YPG Meteorology Team during my tenure:




Current Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) Meteorological Support:

From the Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group

Arizona’s Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) is provided with daily and specialized forecasts in support of range operations during normal duty hours to include severe weather warnings. Radiosondes launched every other hour from four fixed sites and from two mobile sites are on demand. This service is normally provided Monday through Saturday during working hours; however, frequent late night or early morning mission support is provided.

The meteorology section at YPG supports twenty fixed and eight portable surface stations which measure temperature, humidity, wind speeds and direction, and solar radiation. Soil temperature (skin surface temperature), wet bulb globe temperature, visibility distances, precipitation, and pressure measurements are other needs provided for daily and mission support. One additional fixed site records soil moisture and soil temperature at five depths. The area also has four direct-fire ranges that require head and cross wind information provided from 5-10 towers ranging from 0-5 km from the gun. Specialized data collection of scintillation, relative transmissivity, ultraviolet solar radiation, and ozone concentration can be provided as required.

Weather Instrumentation:

a. Weather Radar Type: Doppler.

(1) Specifics: A NEXRAD Doppler radar that is located near Somerton, Arizona, operated by the National Weather Service. It is used for daily forecasts as well as monitoring storm locations and intensity for mission support.
(2) Purpose: daily range operations, and missions.

(3) Uses: Precipitation location and intensity, lightning monitoring, and rainfall and flash flood warning.

b. Satellite: GOES-11 and GOES-12.

c. Upper Air: radiosondes. Specifics: 4,000+ upper air flights for direct mission support per year.

d. Surface:

(1) Rain gauge: WEATHERtronics 6010 tipping buckets.
(2) Anemometer: RM Young 5103 wind monitors; RM Young 27005 UVW sensors; RM Young 85000 sonic anemometers.
(3) Scintillation: Long-Range Optical Anemometers (LOA).
(4) Manual surface observations: NOVALynx standard rain gauge.

(5) Other: Campbell Scientific CS115 barometers, Campbell Scientific HMP45-C thermohygrometers, Campbell Scientific 108 soil temperature probes, Star 3020 Pyranometers, LOA, Small Portable Transmissometer (SPOT), Campbell Scientific CR300 data loggers, ultraviolet radiation sensors, ozone meter. Range Atmospheric and Oceanic Environmental Support Capabilities, RCC Document 354-11, December 2011 18-2

e. Lightning Detection: stand-alone sensor.

(1) National lightning data from Weather Bug.

(2) Specifics: data used for forecasting, issuing warnings, and general mission support.

f. Specialized NWP models: Local model called 4DWx developed and maintained in cooperation with NCAR.


U.S. National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS), Indianapolis, Indiana  Dec 1980 to Jan 1982


DOD Meteorologist (Basic and Applied Research, Operational/Project Support

Meteorologist (Operational/Research)

Use the Automation of Field Operations and Services (AFOS) program to analyze and provide weather forecasts. Take and encode surface observations when required. Operate, when required, and interpret WSR74C weather radar echoes for issuance of severe storm warnings. Brief pilots and aviation official on expected weather conditions. Consult with Air Traffic Controllers (FAA) on critical weather situations. Work closely with the staff hydrologist to monitor rainfall, snowfall, and river stages, and issue flash flood watches and warnings. Performs official climatological research; compile climatological data and perform statistical analysis of climatology data for local, state, national and global use including the public, industry, and media. Due to rotating shift work and life changes, left for a job offer with the DOD, Department of the Navy.

Go back to the top of this section

Standard Atmosphere

Standard Atmosphere:

Troposphere: Layer nearest the earth (~0-12 km); Lapse Rate > 0 (temperature decreases with height); heat source is earth’s surface; ends at tropopause.

Note: The tropopause is lower at the poles (about 8 km) and higher at the equator (about 18 km) and varies by season.

Stratosphere: Layer above Tropopause (~12-50 km); Lapse Rate < 0 (temperature increases with height); Heat source O3 (ozone); Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), also called nacreous clouds can be observed in the lower part of this layer; ends at stratopause;
https://scied.ucar.edu/shortcontent/stratosphere-overviewExternal Link

https://scied.ucar.edu/image/polar-stratospheric-cloudsExternal Link

Mesosphere: Layer above Stratopause (~50-85 km); Lapse Rate > 0 (temperature decreases with height); no heat source; contains coldest atmospheric temperature ~-90C; very little water vapor; area for noctilucent clouds; ends at mesopause.

Thermosphere: Layer above Menopause (~85-500 km); Lapse Rate < 0 (temperature increases with height); heat due to ionization; very thin atmosphere and very sensitive to solar activity; no water vapor; temperatures can reach over 1500C; includes the chemical ionosphere; most auroral activity here.
https://www.nrl.navy.mil/news/releases/nasa-confirms-icon-mission-nrls-mighti-prepares-flightExternal Link
https://icon.ssl.berkeley.edu/Instruments/MIGHTIExternal Link

https://www.gi.alaska.edu/research/space-physics-and-aeronomyExternal Link

Exosphere: The topmost layer of the thermosphere is the thermopause or sometime referred to as the exobase where atoms and molecules begin escaping into space about 250-500 km; the gas laws no longer apply; exists at altitude of ~500-1000 km.
Note: The ‘F’ region of the ionosphere can extend into the Exosphere.

Other Notable regions of the Atmosphere (not technically layers):

Ozonosphere: A region of the atmosphere ~12-50 km (most ozone concentrated ~15-25 km) within the stratosphere containing most of the earth’s ozone. Altitude varies with season and geography.

Ionosphere: A region of the atmosphere (~80-550 km) within the mesosphere, thermosphere, and parts of the exosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. Most auroral activity occurs here at 100-200 km.
Note: The ‘D’ region of the ionosphere can be in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

Contains 3 distinct layers defined by radiation wavelength:

‘D’ region peak is ~90 km but can vary from 50-140 km; strongly absorbs AM radio waves; region disappears at night and becomes reflective; absorbs x-rays.

‘E’ region is ~110 km but can vary from ~95-145 km; strongly reflects AM radio waves; absorbs x-rays.

‘F’ region is ~145-600 km; Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (EUV is) absorbed.
‘F1’ region optimum is ~145-200 km; vanishes at night.

‘F2’ region optimum is ~200-400 km, usually about 300 km during the day and higher at night.

“Who is more humble? The scientist who looks at the universe with an open mind and accepts whatever the universe has to teach us, or somebody who says everything in this book must be considered the literal truth and never mind the fallibility of all the human beings involved?” – Carl SaganExternal Link

Description of Meteorological Functions

Description of Meteorological Functions:
Surface Observations:
https://static.e-publishing.af.mil/production/1/af_a3/publication/afman15-111/afman15-111.pdfExternal Link
Upper Air Soundings:
Pilot balloons (PIBAL), weather balloons (radiosonde/rawinsonde) and meteorological rockets (rocketsonde) are used as a way to gather information about the atmosphere.
https://www.weather.gov/upperair/faqExternal Link
https://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/tn404/text/tn404_6.html#HEADING18External Link
https://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/tn404/text/tn404_6.html#HEADING20External Link
Statistical Analysis (Weather):
Scientifically accepted practices are used to analyze, display, form and test hypotheses on meteorological and climatological data.
Synoptic Climatology
The study of synoptic (large-scale) weather features as they relate to the local climatology of the surface environment. Synoptic Climatology involves the use of climate data analysis to further understand the relationship between large scale circulation and surface environmental processes.
Synoptic Meteorology
The study and analysis of large scale weather systems (synoptic weather informationExternal Link) in areas greater 1000 kilometers usually used as a way to make weather forecasts. 
Applied Climatology 
Analysis of climatological data applied for a current operational use.
https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/bams/86/7/bams-86-7-915.xmlExternal Link
Applied Meteorology 
Analysis of current weather data applied to issue forecasts for a specific purpose.
https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Applied_meteorologyExternal Link
Aviation Meteorology
Aviation Meteorology is meteorology that is tailored to the aviation industry and is intended to help pilots by presenting briefings on the anticipated weather conditions on their route. Pilots are particularly concerned about turbulence, jet stream location speed and direction, precipitation types and icing possibilities, surface conditions such as fog, smoke, and anything reducing visibility, pressure systems, fronts, thunderstorm activity, potential activity and other forms of severe weather. Aviation meteorology requires an extensive knowledge of geography, forecasting techniques, synoptic and mesoscale weather systems, especially severe weather, the ability to forecast weather conditions during takeoff, en route, and upon landing, and the ability to communicate effectively.
Mesoscale Meteorology 
Atmospheric stability, convective and non-convective severe weather on a scale of roughly 10-1000 kilometers; thunderstorms, squall lines, fronts, mesoscale convective complexes, and mesoscale convective systems are examples of mesoscale weather systems. 
https://atmos.uw.edu/academic/mesoscale.htmlExternal Link
Operational Meteorology
Operational meteorologist are generally viewed as weather forecasters but operational meteorology can be defined as any facet of meteorology that involves producing a product or service for any entity including a public agency that is diagnostic or prognostic in nature and aids in operational decision making. Such activities include analysis of atmospheric phenomena with an emphasis on impacts to RDT&E projects.
Operational Weather Forecasting 
Analyze weather conditions and issues forecasts or alerts the public of severe weather for their area; requires extensive use of synoptic meteorology. For military purposes: Analyze atmospheric conditions for the purpose of making a weather forecast that supports various facets of a military operation.
https://www.nssl.noaa.gov/people/jobs/careers.phpExternal Link
Environmental Weather Forecasting
Analyze meteorological data to adapt weather forecasts for specific environmental parameters or phenomena including but not limited to air pollution, ozone, air blastsExternal Link, dust, pollen temperature, precipitation, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind and many more.
Military Meteorology 
A form of Applied Meteorology as it relates to military objectives, missions, or tasks including but not limited to tactical, training and operational needs of the Armed Forces.
https://www.nssl.noaa.gov/people/jobs/careers.phpExternal Link
Artillery Ballistic Meteorology 
Ballistic Meteorology is a specific type of Military Meteorology which uses upper air soundings to gather data on specific meteorological parameters such as temperature, density, and wind. That data is then analyzed to calculate ballistic corrections thus increasing the chances of accurate target acquisition.
https://fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/swos/gunno/INFO9.htmlExternal Link
Micrometeorology (Boundary Layer, Planetary Boundary Layer) 
A type of meteorology concerned with the study of phenomena and parameters in the atmospheric layer near the ground.
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/micrometeorologyExternal Link
https://www.eas.ualberta.ca/jdwilson/jdw2.htmlExternal Link
DOD Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) Project Support Meteorology 
Perform a wide variety of meteorological functions such as issuing multiple types of weather forecasts; performing weather briefings; obtaining and analyzing boundary-layer data; taking surface observations; performing and analyzing data from upper air balloon and rocket soundings; gathering, compiling, analyzing, homogenizing, and performing uncertainty quantification (UQ) on climatological data; performing data quality control and integrity (DQC); various statistical analyses; use of ballistics meteorology; conducting middle and upper atmospheric studies; preparation of technical research papers etc. as required to support various DOD research projects. The following website outlines current support. We had similar requirements for different projects in the 1970’s.
https://apps.dtic.mil/descriptivesum/Y2013/Army/stamped/0605702A_6_PB_2013.pdfExternal Link
Middle and Upper Atmosphere Meteorology/Aeronomy 
A type of meteorology that studies the structure, dynamics, solar influences, energy transfer, optics, chemical composition, and other phenomena of the upper layers of the atmosphere in the stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. This includes phenomena such as the solar wind, noctilucent clouds, Aurora, and more.
http://www.sp.ph.ic.ac.uk/~ingomw/Reading_material/Rees_Chapters1_2.pdfExternal Link
Research Meteorology 
Apply accepted scientific standards to research, test, evaluate, and perform statistical analysis on selected meteorological parameters or phenomena including but not limited to time series analysis, regression analysis, and variance analysis. Also form hypotheses, and quantify uncertainties.
https://www.nssl.noaa.gov/people/jobs/careers.phpExternal Link
Rocket Meteorology 
A specialized form of meteorology which involves launching instrumented sounding rockets specifically designed to capture atmospheric information from the upper stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere from 30-85 kilometers (about 100,000 – 280,000 feet) and transmit the data to be analyzed and used for a wide variety of project support, and research on mesospheric structure and dynamics.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5008227External Link
Radar Meteorology 
The use of radar to study and forecast weather and issues severe weather warnings using the scattering of radar waves to detect the location, types and intensity of precipitation and in some cases winds.
http://dictionary.definitiondb.com/define/radar+meteorologyExternal Link

“Blind belief in authority is the greatest enemy of truth.” – Albert EinsteinExternal Link

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Professional Meteorology Knowledge, Skills and Certifications

Professional Meteorology Knowledge, Skills and Certifications:

Atmospheric Sciences (Atmospheric Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Dynamics, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics)
Operate, calibrate, and maintain meteorological instrumentation and associated equipment
Collect, interpret, and perform statistical analysis on meteorological and climatological data
Mathematics (Algebra, Calculus, Differential Equations, Geometry, and Trigonometry) as it applies to meteorology
Applied Meteorology and Applied Climatology (application of knowledge and information for a specific meteorological or climatological purpose)
Surface and upper air data collection and analysis (includes PIBAL, Rawinsonde, and Rocketsonde)
Environmental and Climatological Research
Technical Writing
Maintenance and preparation of meteorological records and reports
Weather Radars
Synoptic Meteorology
Mesoscale Meteorology/Severe Weather
Micrometeorology (Boundary Layer) data collection and analysis
Surface Weather Observations
Weather Forecasting (Operational, Environmental, Upper Air, Tactical, Ballistic, Aviation, Severe Weather)
Aviation Meteorology

Earth Sciences/Geophysics

Meteorology Specialties:

Research Meteorology
Operational Meteorology
Military Meteorology (including Artillery Ballistic Meteorology)
Middle and Upper Atmosphere Meteorology/Aeronomy
Synoptic Meteorology
Synoptic Climatology
Micrometeorology/Boundary Layer

Environmental and Operational Weather Forecasting

Meteorology Certifications (testing and/or performance based):

Artillery Ballistic Meteorology DOD
Environmental and Operational Weather Forecasting Weather Forecasting DOD, NOAA/NWS
Micrometeorology/Boundary Layer Meteorology DOD
Meteorological Instrumentation DOD, NOAA/NWS
Surface Weather Observations DOD, NOAA/NWS
Upper Air Weather Observations (PIBAL/Radiosonde/Rawinsonde) DOD
Meteorological Rockets (Rocketsondes) DOD

Weather Radars (T9, WSR74C) DOD, NOAA/NWS

Meteorology Associations/Organizations Memberships and Employment Organizations (past and/or present):

American Meteorological Society (AMS)
National Weather Association (NWA)
Pivotal Weather
Semantic Scholar
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Weather Service (NWS) Dept. of Commerce 
DOD U. S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL), an affiliate of the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC), the U.S. Army Electronics Command (USA ECOM), and later the Electronics R&D Command (ERADCOM) 

Note: Currently consolidated with the Army Research Laboratory

Some Notable DOD RDT&E Meteorological Activities, Projects, and Positions

Some Notable DOD RDT&E Meteorological Activities, Projects, and Positions:

Note: Most DOD research is produced as “gray” literature or for a specific local use and is generally focused and applicable for DOD purposes only but may be adaptable for civilian use as well. DOD research relating to meteorology, climate, and atmospheric research may be documented and found at the Defense Technical Research Center. Selected research may be submitted for publishing in scientific journals, books, or other print media.

Lead Research Meteorologist, Desert Macroscale Meteorology, Influences of the North American Monsoon on the Arizona Desert Environment, Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, 1978

Research Meteorologist, Desert Mesoscale Meteorology, Effects of Positive Vorticity Advection (PVA) On Desert Convective Activity during the North American Monsoon, Yuma Proving Ground, AZ 1978

Note: Positive Vorticity Advection (PVA) is now more commonly known as Cyclonic Vorticity Advection (CVA)

Chief Operational and Research Meteorologist, Meteorology, Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) Chief Meteorologist providing an array of meteorological functions including operational, environmental, ballistic, and tactical weather forecasting services including air blast, upper air winds, and meteorological research and other support services, Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, 1977-1978

Lead Research Meteorologist, Desert Microscale Meteorology, Desert Solar Radiation Review and Analysis, Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, 1977-1978

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E Meteorology, Meteorological support for testing of the Global Positioning System (GPS), Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, 1977

Research Meteorologist, Climatology, Desert Environmental Handbook (contributing), Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, 1977

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, Boundary Layer support for the High Energy Laser (HEL), Redstone Arsenal, AL, 1974-1976

Associate Research Meteorologist, Statistical Climatology, Climate and Atmospheric Research, U.S. Army Missile Command Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL, 1975

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E, Atmospheric Science/Aeronomy, ICECAP 74 (Infrared Chemistry Experiments – Coordinated Auroral Program), Aeronomy, Auroral Studies, University of Alaska-Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, Poker Flat Research Range, AK, 1974

LWIR (7-24-Micrometer) Measurements from the Launch of a Rocketborne Spectrometer into a Quiet Atmosphere, 1974
High Altitude Effects Simulation-HAES, 1974
Measurement of Winds in the Thermosphere, 1974

Rocket-Borne Spectral Measurement of Atmospheric Infrared Emission during a Quiet Condition in the Auroral Zone-HAES, 1974

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E, Atmospheric Science/Aeronomy, Meteorological Rocket Network (MRN), Poker Flat Research Range, AK, 1973-1974 

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E, Atmospheric Science/Aeronomy, ICECAP 73 (Infrared Chemistry Experiments – Coordinated Auroral Program), Aeronomy, Auroral Studies, University of Alaska-Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, Poker Flat Research Range, AK, 1973

LWIR (7-24-Micrometer) Measurements from the Launch of a Rocketborne Spectrometer into a Quiet Atmosphere, 1973
High Altitude Effects Simulation-HAES, 1973

Measurement of Winds in the Thermosphere, 1973 

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E, Atmospheric Science/Aeronomy, Noctilucent Cloud Research, Poker Flat Research Range, AK, 1973

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E Meteorology, 1976 VIKING MARS LANDER PROJECT, White Sands Missile Range, NM, 1972

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E Meteorology, NAVSTAR GPS Project, White Sands Missile Range, NM, 1972 

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, RDT&E Meteorology, Athena and Pershing Missile test launches, White Sands Missile Range, NM, 1972

Associate RDT&E Meteorologist, Atmospheric Research Meteorology, Ballistic Wind and Density Studies, White Sands Missile Range, NM, 1972

Meteorological Instruments Used

Meteorological Instruments Used:

Sling Psychrometer
https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Sling_psychrometerExternal Link
Net Exchange Radiometers (all waves)
https://eko-eu.com/products/environmental-science/pyrgeometersExternal Link
Total Hemispheric Radiometer (all wavelengths)
https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/apme/4/1/1520-0450_1965_004_0112_aithr_2_0_co_2.xml?tab_body=fulltext-displayExternal Link
Eppley Pyranometer (short wave radiation)
http://www.eppleylab.com/instrument-list/standard-precision-pyranometer/External Link
Pyrgeometers (long-wave downward radiation)
https://eko-eu.com/products/environmental-science/pyrgeometersExternal Link
Normal Incidence Pyreheliometer (short wave radiation)
http://www.eppleylab.com/instrument-list/normal-incidence-pyrheliometer/External Link
Eppley Pyreheliometer (short wave radiation)
Light bulb typeExternal Link is now obsolete.
Solar Radiation Measuring Set (short wave radiation)
http://meteorologyequipment.tpub.com/TM-750-5-3/TM-750-5-30025.htmExternal Link
Mast Ozone Meter 724-2: Ozone sensing and measuring instrument. General Characteristics Item Description: Microcoulomb sensor, 0 to 100 pphm/vol range, direct readout dial, 140 cc/min. sampling rate, 115 vac 60 Hz, 12 W power, 7.5 in. W, 6.0 in. D, 11.5 in.
HWS101 Wind Set: Measures wind speed and direction. Set is used for studies, turbulent diffusion, air pollution and micromet surveys.
UVW Wind Systems
http://www.webmet.com/met_monitoring/222.htmlExternal Link
Anemometers and Laser Anemometer (LDA)
https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=provost_scholExternal Link
Thermograph and Hygrothermograph
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermo-hygrographExternal Link
Barograph and Microbarograph
https://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/earth/weather/meteorology/barographExternal Link
Aneroid Barometer
http://belfortinstrument.com/ambient-meteorological/pressure/aneroid-barometer/External Link
Mercury barometer
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pman.htmlExternal Link
https://www.ametherm.com/thermistor/thermistor-applicationsExternal Link
Mechanical Weather Station Model 1071-1072: A four parameter weather station measuring wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and rainfall with a recorder capable of recording for 32-65 days depending on the set chart speed. Recorder can be hand wound or operated with a battery.
https://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/earth/weather/meteorology/theodoliteExternal Link
Ground Meteorological Device (GMD) – Tracks and receives upper air sounding data
http://meteorologyequipment.tpub.com/TM-750-5-3/TM-750-5-30015.htmExternal Link
http://meteorologyequipment.tpub.com/TM-750-5-3/TM-750-5-30013.htmExternal Link
Various Weather Radars (T9, WSR74C)
ARCAS Meteorological Rocket
http://www.astronautix.com/a/arcas.htmlExternal Link
Loki/Super Loki Meteorological Rocket
http://www.astronautix.com/l/loki.htmlExternal Link
http://www.astronautix.com/s/superloki.htmlExternal Link
I’m sure there are more and will add as I remember them.

Meteorology Related Web Sites

Meteorology Related Web Sites:

Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology

 U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory
U.S. Army Research Laboratory (established 1992)

Some ARL Projects:

ARL scientists support artillery meteorology:
ARL seminar on Unmanned Aircraft System development and products: https://www.army.mil/article/78016/arl_provides_seminar_at_university_of_oklahoma_tours_national_weather_center
An Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Weather Hazards Using Sounding Data and Model Output Data: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a382550.pdf
High Resolution Wind Model: https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA498167.pdf
ARL Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/ArmyResearchLaboratory
The Four-Dimensional Weather (4DWX) System: http://ral.ucar.edu/projects/armyrange/references/publications/Bowers.BACIMO03.htm
A U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) instrument designed to study the Earth’s thermosphere:
Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting for unmanned aircraft:
Climate sensitivity to solar variability
ARL’s Atmospheric Science Center opens its doors to Open Campus opportunities


U.S. Government Science Information
U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory


Weather Organizations:


Some current DOD Weather Programs:


Meteorological Instrumentation and Equipment:
Radiosondes and Rocketsondes https://www.weather.gov/upperair/factsheethttps://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Rocketsonde

Eppley Solar radiation measuring instruments http://www.eppleylab.com/applications/

Meteorological Rockets:
Meteorological Rocket Network (MRN) https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/EO062i052p01202-02
Arcas Info http://www.astronautix.com/a/arcas.html
Loki/Super Loki Info

Development of the Super Loki Meteorological Rocket https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/750796.pdf

DOD Military Applied Climatology:


Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University https://erau.edu/about

Weather Associations:


Current Artillery/Ballistic Meteorology Equipment and Research:


Middle and Upper Atmospheric Research:


Military Weather Books and Articles:

Weather Modification https://fas.org/man/eprint/leitenberg/weather.pdf

Military Meteorology:
Projects related to my meteorological research and support after I left the ASL:
T9 Radar Study https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/AD0757624
GEOPHYSICAL MONITORING FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE NO.2 BOULDER. COLO. December 1974 SUMMARY REPORT. 1973 https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/publications/summary_reports/summary_report_2.pdf


Atmospheric Science Books:
Synoptic Climatology… The term synoptic climatology was adopted at the headquarters of the US Air Force in the early 1940’s in reference to analyses made of past weather situations in order to assess the frequencies of different operational conditions.

Micrometeorology http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Micrometeorology-Edition-International-Geophysics/dp/0120593548

Private Meteorological Companies:


Military Meteorological jobs and qualifications:


Meteorology Education and University Research:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):

OpenCourseware https://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm

University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH):


University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF):


Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University:


University of Arizona:


University of Oklahoma: 


Penn State University: http://www.met.psu.edu/

Current DOD Intern programs…


Paleoclimatology (NOAA):
Home Page: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data

Education Outreach: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/education-outreach

Climate Change:


Other Paleoclimatology:


Poker Flat Research Range and other Middle and Upper Atmosphere (including ionosphere) Links and Info:


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  • Poker Flat Entrance Sign
  • Poker Flat Images
  • Trans Alaska Pipeline
  • PC Workstations

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